Further descriptions of terms

Weather warnings/advisories

Thunder
Thunderstorm advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that disaster due to lightning is expected to occur.
Also, an alert about disasters due to "hail" or gust of wind occurring often under developing thunder clouds may be added.
Thunderstorm advisory includes an attention to sudden strong rain.
Heavy Rain
Heavy rain advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disaster or sediment disaster due to heavy rain are expected to occur.
When sediment disaster etc. are expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Heavy rain warning
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that major flood disaster or sediment disaster due to heavy rain are expected to occur.
When major sediment disaster etc. are expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Flood
Flood advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disasters such as overflow due to increasing river water caused by heavy rain and long rain etc. are expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Flood warning
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disasters such as major overflow due to increasing river water caused by heavy rain, long rain and snow melt etc. are expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Storm surge
Storm surge advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disaster due to extremely rise in sea level caused by typhoon is expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Storm surge warning
It is issued when major disaster due to extremely rise in sea level caused by typhoon or low pressure etc. is expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Tsunami
Tsunami advisory
Pay attention to a tsunami advisory issued when a disaster due to tsunami is expected. In this case, estimated tsunami height is over 0.2 meter at high point and up to 1 meter.
Tsunami warning
Be vigilant to a tsunami warning issued when tsunami height is estimated to be over 1 meter at high point and up to 3 meters.
Great tsunami warning
Be strictly vigilant to a major tsunami warning issued when tsunami height is estimated to exceed 3 meters at high point.
Emergency warning
Emergency warning
Emergency warning is issued and maximum vigilance is called for when torrential rain etc. exceeding the criteria to issue warnings are expected, and major disaster risk has been extremely increasing.
The Japan Metrological Agency issues 6 kinds of emergency warnings.
In addition, major tsunami warning is placed in emergency warnings.
Heavy rain emergency warning
Heavy rain emergency warning is issued when heavy rain causing the amount of rainfall once in every several decades is expected due to typhoon and localized torrential rain, or when heavy rain is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.  
When heavy rain emergency warning is issued, major disasters such as flood or sediment disaster etc. are highly expected to occur.
When major sediment disaster etc. are highly expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
Heavy snow emergency warning
Heavy snow emergency warning is issued when heavy snow causing the amount of snowfall once in every several decades is expected.
Storm emergency warning
Storm emergency warning is issued when stormy weather is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades. 
Blizzard emergency warning
Blizzard emergency warning is issued when stormy weather with snow is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
Vigilance is called for when “major disaster due to obstruction to visibility (shutting out the view) with snow etc.” in addition to “major disaster due to storm” are highly expected.
Storm surge emergency warning
Storm surge emergency warning is issued when storm surge is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.  
High waves emergency warning
High wave emergency warning is issued when high wave is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
This “high wave” is totally different from “tsunami” due to earthquake. 
Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time
Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time
The Japan Meteorological Agency issues it when short-time heavy rain occurring once in every several years is observed (observation with rain gauge on the ground) and is analyzed (analysis of rainfall in combination with weather radar and rain gauge on the ground).
When this information is issued, it means that it terrifically rains in your place or nearby causing the disaster. 
In Hiroshima city, it was issued when sediment disaster occurred on 20 August, 2014.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/bosai/kirokuame.html)
Tornado warning
Tornado warning
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) etc. issue it for the region (1 prefecture in general) which JMA etc. are in charge of, as information to pay attention to violent storm with very strong winds such as tornados and downbursts under cumulonimbus clouds (“tornados etc.” below) and additional information on thunderstorm advisory.
It is valid for about 1 hour after the announcement.
Sediment disaster warning services
Sediment disaster warning services
In case that the potential of occurring sediment disaster has been raised much more while heavy rain warning (sediment disaster) has been issued, prefectures and the Japan Meteorological Agency jointly issue it as information to call for vigilance specifying the target municipality in order to support determination of issuing evacuation warning etc.. by the mayor of municipality, or for reference of voluntary evacuation of residents.
Index of rainfall in the soil
Index of rainfall in the soil is to show how much rainfall is collected in the soil using a method of “tank model” from the data of amount of the rainfall.
Sediment disasters such as debris flow and landslide due to heavy rain are highly likely to occur if the solid contains a large amount of water, and it can be also caused by rain several days before.
Index of rainfall in the soil is used for reference to issue sediment disaster alerting information or heavy rain warning and heavy rain advisory by the Japan Meteorological Agency etc. as an index to show an increasing risk of occurring sediment disaster due to heavy rain.
Information on risk of landslide disasters
In Hiroshima Pref, it provides the detailed information regarding a degree of risk of occurring sediment disaster in regions in 5km mesh supplementing the contents of sediment disaster alerting information.
This city issues evacuation warning etc. for those who live in the sediment disaster special alert area in accordance with a degree of risk in indicated regions. 
Flood forecast on designated rivers
Flood forecast on designated rivers
The Japan Meteorological Agency jointly with Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or prefectural agencies gives forecasts of floods with the water level or the volume of flowing water regarding the designated rivers for reference of determination of prevention activities against flood or raised water level in the river, or act of resident’s evacuation.
In Hiroshima city, the following rivers are designated in advance. 
The river forecasting floods) The section managed by the nation of upstream of Ootagawa River, downstream of Ootagawa River, Misasagawa River and Nenotanigawa River 
Overflow advisory information
Overflow advisory information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be the criteria reaches an overflow advisory water level, and its water level is also expected to rise in the river forecasting floods.  
We have reached the stage of demanding attention to the occurrence of overflow to residents. 
Overflow alerting information
Overflow alerting information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be the criteria is expected to reach an overflow danger water level after a certain time, or reaches the water level of determing the evacuation, and its water level is also expected to rise in the river forecasting floods.
We have reached the stage of demanding to warn to the occurrence of overflow such as preparation for evacuation etc. to residents. 
Overflow danger information
Overflow danger information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow danger water level in the river forecasting floods.
As overflow may occur at any moment, we have reached the stage of demanding response to the occurrence of overflow such as evacuation etc. to residents. 
Information on occurrence of overflow
Information on occurrence of overflow is issued when overflow occurs in the river forecasting floods.
We have reached the stage of demanding warning to flood due to overflow to residents. 
Information on reaching water level
Information on reaching water level
Information on reaching etc. are issued when reaching a given water level in the designated river as the one to notify and publicize an information on reaching an overflow danger water level. 
In Hiroshima city, the following rivers are designated in advance. 
The river publicizing a water level)
*The river managed by the nation : Kyuootagawa River, Motoyasugawa River, Furukawa River
*The river managed by the prefecture : Yahatagawa River, Yasukawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Minochigawa River, Senogawa River, Fuchuookawa River, Suzuharigawa River, Okanoshitagawa River, Nabaragawa River
Overflow advisory information
Overflow advisory information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow advisory water level in the river publicizing a water level. 
Overflow alerting information
Overflow alerting information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches a level of determing the evacuation in the river publicizing a water level.
Overflow danger information
Overflow danger information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow danger water level in the river publicizing a water level.
Typhoon information
Typhoon information
Typhoon information with the forecast and the actual conditions such as location and strength of typhoon, is issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency when typhoon occurs.
It provides much further information updating much often since a typhoon is approaching Japan.
Earthquake information
Seismic intensity
The seismic intensity is a scale to measure the intensity of earthquakes.
The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity (shindo) scale gives a total of 10 levels of earthquake: “shindo 0”, “shindo 1”, “shindo 2”, “shindo 3”, “shindo 4”, “shindo 5-lower”, “shindo 5-upper”, “shindo 6-lower”, “shindo 6-upper”, “shindo 7”.
You can confirm effects on people, indoor situations and outdoor situations in each seismic intensity (shindo) scale on the website of The Japan Meteorological Agency. 
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “Seismic intensity (shindo) scale explanation table of The Japan Meteorological Agency”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/shindo/kaisetsu.html)

Observed information

Information on amount of rainfall
Rainfall in 10 minutes
It is rainfall in the most recent 10 minutes.
Rainfall in 60 minutes
It is rainfall in the most recent 60 minutes (1 hour).
You can confirm the strength of rain and the way rain falls on the website of The Japan Meteorological Agency. 
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “The strength of rain and the way rain falls”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/yougo_hp/amehyo.html)
Effective rainfall
Effective rainfall is the standard rainfall calculating the effect of rainfall in the past by decreasing it over time.
This city’s system uses the 72 hours half-value period.
Cumulative rainfall
“Cumulative rainfall” is a total amount of rainfall from starting raining to that time.
Cumulative rainfall will be reset after no rain continues for a certain period of time. When a rainfall is detected after that, it is regarded as new rain (starting raining).
State of rain clouds
High-resolution Precipitation Nowcasts
High-resolution Precipitation Nowcasts provide short-range precipitation intensity predictions with a spatial resolution of 250 m. They are derived from weather radar data by The Japan Meteorological Agency.
Standard water level
Stand-by water level for flood fighting corps
It is a water level set to flood prevention warning rivers and it is also the standard water level which flood prevention teams standby against floods and storm surges and prepare for flood prevention activities.  
It corresponds to a water level of notify, written in the provisions of Article 12 of the Flood Prevention Act.
The flood control warning rivers of this city are as follows.
The flood control warning river)
*The river managed by the nation: Ootagawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Kyuootagawa River, Motoyasugawa River, Tenmagawa River
*The river managed by the prefecture : Yahatagawa River, Yasukawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Minochigawa River, Senogawa River, Enkougawa River, Kyoubashigawa River
Flood watch water level
It is a water level to be cautious about disaster occurrence due to floods and storm surges (warning water level given by the provisions of Article 12 of the Flood Prevention Act). Also, it is the standard water level which flood prevention teams etc. dispatch in the flood prevention warning rivers. 
It is essential that we pay fully attention to rise of a water level after reaching.
Water Level Basis for Decision to Evacuate
It is a water level to start to alert to information on overflow for residents while it becomes a reference for determination of issuing the orders of evacuation preparation and starting the evacuation for the elderly etc. by the mayor of municipality.
It is essential that we are fully vigilant against rise of a water level after reaching.
Flood danger water level
It is a water level to be fully cautious about disaster occurrence due to floods (emergency warning water level given by the provisions of Article 13 of the Flood Prevention Act). Also, it is the standard water level for the mayors to determine to issue evacuation warning etc., and it is a reference for residents to determine to evacuate.
It is essential that we are strictly vigilant against rise of a water level after reaching.
Tide level information
Warning tide level
It is the standard tide level which flood prevention teams standby against storm surges and prepare for flood prevention activities.  
It has been set T.P.2.1m in Hiroshima port designated for Hiroshima city.
Tide Level Alert
It is a tide level to be cautious about disaster occurrence due to storm surges while it is the standard tide level which flood prevention teams etc. dispatch.
It has been set T.P.2.5m in Hiroshima port designated for Hiroshima city.
Astronomical tide
Such as high tide, low tide and flood tide, neap tide, a change in tide level caused by tidal force of moon and sun is called “astronomical tide” and its tide level is called “astronomical tide level”.
If there is an observation data with good accuracy about a certain point in long term, astronomical tide level of that point can be predicted in a high accuracy.

Evacuation information

Preparation for evacuation / Start the evacuation for the elderly etc
Preparation for evacuation / Start the evacuation for the elderly etc
This city issues it when the possibility of occurring a large number of human damages is raised.
This city generally issues it for residents living in danger areas such as sediment disaster special alert area in elementary school district.
The actions we call for residents etc. who need eviction for evacuation are as follows.
*Those who requires consideration (during disaster) move out for evacuation.
*It is recommended to pay attention to future weather information for disaster prevention, water level information etc. and voluntarily start to evacuate while making preparation for eviction for evacuation. (Major designated emergency evacuation areas have started to open from the stage of evacuation preparation and starting the evacuation for the elderly etc.)
*Especially regarding the sediment disaster which is hard to predict and occurs suddenly in comparison to other flood disasters, it is strongly recommended to move out for evacuation to available designated emergency evacuation areas etc. corresponding to sediment disaster as soon as preparation for evacuation is ready.
Evacuation advisory
Evacuation advisory
This city issues it when the possibility of occurring a large number of human damages is clearly raised.
This city generally issues it for residents living in danger areas such as sediment disaster special alert area in elementary school district.
The actions we call for residents etc. who need eviction for evacuation are as follows.
*Move out in order to evacuate to the designated emergency evacuation area coping with the anticipated disaster or the predetermined evacuation area individually.
*In case that you make a judgement that eviction for evacuation to designated emergency evacuation area turns out to be dangerous to your life, you evacuate to safer area or safer building etc. nearby and take measures to secure the safety such as moving to safer area even on indoors as evacuation actions for higher possibility to save your life. 
Evacuation directive (Emergency)
Evacuation directive (Emergency)
This city issues it when the situation is becoming tense such as precursory phenomenon occurs, or there is highly possibility of occurring human damages such as disaster has already occurred.
The actions we call for residents etc. who need eviction for evacuation are as follows.
*In case of hesitating eviction for evacuation due to delay of evacuation preparation and determination etc., you move out for evacuate immediately.
*In case that you make a judgement that eviction for evacuation to designated emergency evacuation areas etc. turns out to be dangerous to your life, you evacuate to safer building etc. nearby and take measures to secure the safety such as moving to safer area even on indoors as evacuation actions for higher possibility to save your life. 

Dangerous areas

Flood-assumed area
Flood-assumed area
Regarding the river forecasting floods and the river designated the river publicizing a water level, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and prefectures designates the areas assumed to flood when the said rivers overflow due to assumed maximum rainfall as a flood-assumed area in order to reduce flood damages through securing smooth and prompt evacuation in case of flood or preventing floods. Also, they publicize designated areas and assumed water depth and duration time of flooding in case of flood as a flood-assumed area chart. 
You find a list of target rivers and setting of rainfall on this city's website.  
*This city’s website “Flood hazard map in Hiroshima city”
(http://www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp/www/contents/1392362485710/index.html)
Possible sediment disaster areas
Dangerous site of sediment disaster
Dangerous site chart of sediment disaster indicates a site where there seems to be a damage risk due to sediment disaster in Hiroshima Pref. and it is shown to public for reference at the point of warning evacuation related to sediment disaster or considering land use. 
Therefore, acts etc. in the land area of dangerous site chart of sediment disaster are not regulated by law.
In addition, it is no proof of sediment disaster occurrence or damage area.
In the region not designated sediment disaster special alert area etc. provided for in sediment disaster prevention law, evacuation warning etc. will be issued for within the area including dangerous site of sediment disaster before this is designated. 
In addition, information on dangerous site of sediment disaster is as of April 1, 2002.
It is not corresponding to a change of dangerous site due to changing the state of landform such as construction later etc.
Sediment disaster special alert areas
It is designated by Hiroshima Pref. based on sediment disaster prevention law enacted as a result from sediment disaster occurred on June 29, 1999 in Hiroshima city etc. In case of occurring collapse of steeply sloping ground, it is an area to be found that there is a threat to the life or body of residents etc., and notification of danger and establishment of a system for warning evacuation have been done.
Sediment disaster emergency special alert areas
It is designated by Hiroshima Pref. based on sediment disaster prevention law. In case of occurring collapse of steeply sloping ground, it is an area to be found that there is a highly threat to the life or body of residents etc., and licensing system for specified development activities or regulating structure of building etc. have been done.
Estimated storm surge and flood area 
Estimated storm surge and flood area 
In Hiroshima Pref, a chart of estimated storm surge and flood with estimated area and depth of flood in case of flood occurrence due to storm surge caused by typhoon is shown to public.
2 cases are estimated now; one case is occurring once every 30 years and another case is equivalent to Isewan typhoon.
Estimated tsunami and flood area
Estimated tsunami and flood area
In Hiroshima Pref, a chart of estimated tsunami and flood area with estimated flood area and depth of flood in case of occurring the largest tsunami under bad conditions is shown to public.

Evacuation area etc.

Designated emergency evacuation area
Designated emergency evacuation area
Those are facility and place designated by this city in advance in classification of disaster as an evacuation area in order to protect people’s life from imminent danger of disaster. 
It is set up as an evacuation destination according to issuing evacuation warning etc.
City-owned facilities such as school or community center are mainly designated. 
Classification of disaster) sediment disaster, flood, storm surge, earthquake, tsunami, big fire
Designated shelter
Designated shelter
It is a facility designated by this city in advance as a place for living as refugees in a certain period in case of losing homes etc. due to disaster.
There is a facility combining a designated emergency evacuation area, too.
School gym is mainly designated.

Others

Civil protection services
Civil protection services
We will inform you of any information on civil protection announced by the national government (information on ballistic missiles, guerilla attacks, air strikes, large-scale acts of terrorism, and other relevant information on civil protection).
Headquarter for disaster control
Headquarter for disaster control
It is established in order to respond to a possible large-scale disaster. A mayor and a ward mayor play a role as a chief of the headquarter in the city and in the ward respectively.