Further descriptions of terms

Weather warnings/advisories

Thunder
Thunderstorm advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that disaster due to lightning is expected to occur.
Also, an alert about disasters due to "hail" or gust of wind occurring often under developing thunder clouds may be added.
Thunderstorm advisory includes an attention to sudden strong rain.
Heavy Rain
Heavy rain advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disaster or sediment disaster due to heavy rain are expected to occur.
When sediment disaster etc. are expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Heavy rain warning
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that major flood disaster or sediment disaster due to heavy rain are expected to occur.
When major sediment disaster etc. are expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Flood
Flood advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disasters such as overflow due to increasing river water caused by heavy rain and long rain etc. are expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Flood warning
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disasters such as major overflow due to increasing river water caused by heavy rain, long rain and snow melt etc. are expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Storm surge
Storm surge advisory
The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disaster due to extremely rise in sea level caused by typhoon is expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Storm surge warning
It is issued when major disaster due to extremely rise in sea level caused by typhoon or low pressure etc. is expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)
Tsunami
Tsunami advisory
Pay attention to a tsunami advisory issued when a disaster due to tsunami is expected. In this case, estimated tsunami height is over 0.2 meter at high point and up to 1 meter.
Tsunami warning
Be vigilant to a tsunami warning issued when tsunami height is estimated to be over 1 meter at high point and up to 3 meters.
Great tsunami warning
Be strictly vigilant to a major tsunami warning issued when tsunami height is estimated to exceed 3 meters at high point.
Emergency warning
Emergency warning
Emergency warning is issued and maximum vigilance is called for when torrential rain etc. exceeding the criteria to issue warnings are expected, and major disaster risk has been extremely increasing.
The Japan Metrological Agency issues 6 kinds of emergency warnings.
In addition, major tsunami warning is placed in emergency warnings.
Heavy rain emergency warning
Heavy rain emergency warning is issued when heavy rain causing the amount of rainfall once in every several decades is expected due to typhoon and localized torrential rain, or when heavy rain is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.  
When heavy rain emergency warning is issued, major disasters such as flood or sediment disaster etc. are highly expected to occur.
When major sediment disaster etc. are highly expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
Heavy snow emergency warning
Heavy snow emergency warning is issued when heavy snow causing the amount of snowfall once in every several decades is expected.
Storm emergency warning
Storm emergency warning is issued when stormy weather is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades. 
Blizzard emergency warning
Blizzard emergency warning is issued when stormy weather with snow is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
Vigilance is called for when “major disaster due to obstruction to visibility (shutting out the view) with snow etc.” in addition to “major disaster due to storm” are highly expected.
Storm surge emergency warning
Storm surge emergency warning is issued when storm surge is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.  
High waves emergency warning
High wave emergency warning is issued when high wave is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
This “high wave” is totally different from “tsunami” due to earthquake. 
Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time
Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time
The Japan Meteorological Agency issues it when short-time heavy rain occurring once in every several years is observed (observation with rain gauge on the ground) and is analyzed (analysis of rainfall in combination with weather radar and rain gauge on the ground).
When this information is issued, it means that it terrifically rains in your place or nearby causing the disaster. 
In Hiroshima city, it was issued when sediment disaster occurred on 20 August, 2014.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/bosai/kirokuame.html)
Tornado warning
Tornado warning
The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) etc. issue it for the region (1 prefecture in general) which JMA etc. are in charge of, as information to pay attention to violent storm with very strong winds such as tornados and downbursts under cumulonimbus clouds (“tornados etc.” below) and additional information on thunderstorm advisory.
It is valid for about 1 hour after the announcement.
Sediment disaster warning services
Sediment disaster warning services
In situations where a heavy rain (landslide) warning has been issued and the risk of landslide has increased further, this information identifies target municipalities and calls for vigilance and is issued jointly by the prefectural government and the Japan Meteorological Agency in order to assist the mayors of municipalities in making decisions on evacuation instructions, etc., and to help residents to evacuate voluntarily.
Index of rainfall in the soil
Index of rainfall in the soil is to show how much rainfall is collected in the soil using a method of “tank model” from the data of amount of the rainfall.
Sediment disasters such as debris flow and landslide due to heavy rain are highly likely to occur if the solid contains a large amount of water, and it can be also caused by rain several days before.
Index of rainfall in the soil is used for reference to issue sediment disaster alerting information or heavy rain warning and heavy rain advisory by the Japan Meteorological Agency etc. as an index to show an increasing risk of occurring sediment disaster due to heavy rain.
Information on risk of landslide disasters
In Hiroshima Pref, it provides the detailed information regarding a degree of risk of occurring sediment disaster in regions in 5km mesh supplementing the contents of sediment disaster alerting information.
The city will issue evacuation instructions for people in the landslide warning area according to the risk level of the indicated area.
Flood forecast on designated rivers
Flood forecast on designated rivers
The Japan Meteorological Agency jointly with Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or prefectural agencies gives forecasts of floods with the water level or the volume of flowing water regarding the designated rivers for reference of determination of prevention activities against flood or raised water level in the river, or act of resident’s evacuation.
In Hiroshima city, the following rivers are designated in advance. 
The river forecasting floods) The section managed by the nation of upstream of Ootagawa River, downstream of Ootagawa River, Misasagawa River and Nenotanigawa River 
Overflow advisory information
Overflow advisory information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be the criteria reaches an overflow advisory water level, and its water level is also expected to rise in the river forecasting floods.  
We have reached the stage of demanding attention to the occurrence of overflow to residents. 
Overflow alerting information
Overflow alerting information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be the criteria is expected to reach an overflow danger water level after a certain time, or reaches the water level of determing the evacuation, and its water level is also expected to rise in the river forecasting floods.
This is the stage to ask the elderly and other persons requiring special care to start evacuating.
Overflow danger information
Overflow danger information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow danger water level in the river forecasting floods.
As overflow may occur at any moment, we have reached the stage of demanding response to the occurrence of overflow such as evacuation etc. to residents. 
Information on occurrence of overflow
Information on occurrence of overflow is issued when overflow occurs in the river forecasting floods.
We have reached the stage of demanding warning to flood due to overflow to residents. 
Information on reaching water level
Information on reaching water level
Information on reaching etc. are issued when reaching a given water level in the designated river as the one to notify and publicize an information on reaching an overflow danger water level. 
In Hiroshima city, the following rivers are designated in advance. 
The river publicizing a water level)
*The river managed by the nation : Kyuootagawa River, Motoyasugawa River, Furukawa River
*The river managed by the prefecture : Yahatagawa River, Yasukawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Minochigawa River, Senogawa River, Fuchuookawa River, Suzuharigawa River, Okanoshitagawa River, Nabaragawa River
Overflow advisory information
Overflow advisory information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow advisory water level in the river publicizing a water level. 
Overflow alerting information
Overflow alerting information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches a level of determing the evacuation in the river publicizing a water level.
Overflow danger information
Overflow danger information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow danger water level in the river publicizing a water level.
Typhoon information
Typhoon information
Typhoon information with the forecast and the actual conditions such as location and strength of typhoon, is issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency when typhoon occurs.
It provides much further information updating much often since a typhoon is approaching Japan.
Earthquake information
Seismic intensity
The seismic intensity is a scale to measure the intensity of earthquakes.
The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity (shindo) scale gives a total of 10 levels of earthquake: “shindo 0”, “shindo 1”, “shindo 2”, “shindo 3”, “shindo 4”, “shindo 5-lower”, “shindo 5-upper”, “shindo 6-lower”, “shindo 6-upper”, “shindo 7”.
You can confirm effects on people, indoor situations and outdoor situations in each seismic intensity (shindo) scale on the website of The Japan Meteorological Agency. 
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “Seismic intensity (shindo) scale explanation table of The Japan Meteorological Agency”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/shindo/kaisetsu.html)

Observed information

Information on amount of rainfall
Rainfall in 10 minutes
It is rainfall in the most recent 10 minutes.
Rainfall in 60 minutes
It is rainfall in the most recent 60 minutes (1 hour).
You can confirm the strength of rain and the way rain falls on the website of The Japan Meteorological Agency. 
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “The strength of rain and the way rain falls”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/yougo_hp/amehyo.html)
Effective rainfall
Effective rainfall is the standard rainfall calculating the effect of rainfall in the past by decreasing it over time.
This city’s system uses the 72 hours half-value period.
Cumulative rainfall
“Cumulative rainfall” is a total amount of rainfall from starting raining to that time.
Cumulative rainfall will be reset after no rain continues for a certain period of time. When a rainfall is detected after that, it is regarded as new rain (starting raining).
State of rain clouds
High-resolution Precipitation Nowcasts
High-resolution Precipitation Nowcasts provide short-range precipitation intensity predictions with a spatial resolution of 250 m. They are derived from weather radar data by The Japan Meteorological Agency.
Standard water level
Stand-by water level for flood fighting corps
It is a water level set to flood prevention warning rivers and it is also the standard water level which flood prevention teams standby against floods and storm surges and prepare for flood prevention activities.  
It corresponds to a water level of notify, written in the provisions of Article 12 of the Flood Prevention Act.
The flood control warning rivers of this city are as follows.
The flood control warning river)
*The river managed by the nation: Ootagawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Kyuootagawa River, Motoyasugawa River, Tenmagawa River
*The river managed by the prefecture : Yahatagawa River, Yasukawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Minochigawa River, Senogawa River, Enkougawa River, Kyoubashigawa River
Flood watch water level
It is a water level to be cautious about disaster occurrence due to floods and storm surges (warning water level given by the provisions of Article 12 of the Flood Prevention Act). Also, it is the standard water level which flood prevention teams etc. dispatch in the flood prevention warning rivers. 
It is essential that we pay fully attention to rise of a water level after reaching.
Water Level Basis for Decision to Evacuate
This is the water level at which the mayor of the municipality will make a decision to issue evacuation instructions for the elderly and other persons requiring special care, and begin alerting residents to information about flooding.
After it has been reached, sufficient caution is required regarding rising water levels.
Flood danger water level
This is a water level that requires special warning about the occurrence of disasters due to flooding (Emergency warning water level set forth in Article 13 of the Flood Control Act), and it serves as a guide for the mayor of the municipality to issue evacuation instructions, etc., and as a reference for residents to make evacuation decisions.
After it has been reached, extreme caution is required regarding rising water levels.
Tide level information
Warning tide level
It is the standard tide level which flood prevention teams standby against storm surges and prepare for flood prevention activities.  
It has been set T.P.2.1m in Hiroshima port designated for Hiroshima city.
Tide Level Alert
It is a tide level to be cautious about disaster occurrence due to storm surges while it is the standard tide level which flood prevention teams etc. dispatch.
It has been set T.P.2.5m in Hiroshima port designated for Hiroshima city.
Astronomical tide
Such as high tide, low tide and flood tide, neap tide, a change in tide level caused by tidal force of moon and sun is called “astronomical tide” and its tide level is called “astronomical tide level”.
If there is an observation data with good accuracy about a certain point in long term, astronomical tide level of that point can be predicted in a high accuracy.

Evacuation information

Evacuation instructions for the elderly and other persons requiring special care
Evacuation instructions for the elderly and other persons requiring special care
The city will issue this instruction when there is a possibility of a disaster occurring.
This city generally issues it for residents living in danger areas such as sediment disaster special alert area in elementary school district.
The actions required of residents are as follows.
・Persons requiring special care and their supporters will begin evacuation activities.
・Evacuate to an acquaintance's house in a predetermined safe location, an evacuation site voluntarily opened by the community, or a designated emergency evacuation site opened by the city.
・It is desirable for people other than those requiring special care and their supporters to suspend their normal activities, such as refraining from going to work or other activities, and prepare for evacuation, or evacuate voluntarily, if necessary.
Evacuation instructions
Evacuation instructions
The city will issue this instruction when there is a increased possibility of a disaster.
This city generally issues it for residents living in danger areas such as sediment disaster special alert area in elementary school district.
The actions required of residents are as follows.
・Evacuate immediately from at-risk areas.
・In the event of a flood or storm surge, if it can be confirmed through hazard maps, etc., that it is possible to ensure personal safety indoors on upper floors, etc., it is possible to ensure safety indoors at one's own discretion. However, for landslides and tsunamis, evacuation is required.
Instructions to take emergency measures to ensure safety
Instructions to take emergency measures to ensure safety
It is issued by the city in situations where a disaster has occurred or is imminent, or where it is actually considered dangerous to evacuate in order to ensure personal safety.
The actions required of residents are as follows.
・Due to the danger to life, take action to ensure safety immediately.
・If you judge for yourself that evacuating to a designated emergency evacuation site may endanger your life, you should immediately ensure your own safety by moving to a higher place or a place away from mountains or cliffs that you can judge to be relatively safe.

Dangerous areas

Flood-assumed area
Flood-assumed area
Regarding the river forecasting floods and the river designated the river publicizing a water level, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism and prefectures designates the areas assumed to flood when the said rivers overflow due to assumed maximum rainfall as a flood-assumed area in order to reduce flood damages through securing smooth and prompt evacuation in case of flood or preventing floods. Also, they publicize designated areas and assumed water depth and duration time of flooding in case of flood as a flood-assumed area chart. 
You find a list of target rivers and setting of rainfall on this city's website.  
*This city’s website “Flood hazard map in Hiroshima city”
(https://www.city.hiroshima.lg.jp/site/saigaiinfo/17890.html)
Possible sediment disaster areas
Dangerous site of sediment disaster
Dangerous site chart of sediment disaster indicates a site where there seems to be a damage risk due to sediment disaster in Hiroshima Pref. and it is shown to public for reference at the point of warning evacuation related to sediment disaster or considering land use.
Therefore, acts etc. in the land area of dangerous site chart of sediment disaster are not regulated by law.
In addition, it is no proof of sediment disaster occurrence or damage area.
In areas that have not been designated as a landslide warning area under the Sediment Disaster Prevention Act, evacuation instructions will be issued for areas that are included in the landslide risk locations, etc., until such time as the area is designated.
In addition, information on dangerous site of sediment disaster is as of April 1, 2002.
It is not corresponding to a change of dangerous site due to changing the state of landform such as construction later etc.
Sediment disaster special alert areas
It is designated by Hiroshima Pref. based on sediment disaster prevention law enacted as a result from sediment disaster occurred on June 29, 1999 in Hiroshima city etc. In case of occurring collapse of steeply sloping ground, it is an area to be found that there is a threat to the life or body of residents etc., and notification of danger and establishment of a system for warning evacuation have been done.
Sediment disaster emergency special alert areas
It is designated by Hiroshima Pref. based on sediment disaster prevention law. In case of occurring collapse of steeply sloping ground, it is an area to be found that there is a highly threat to the life or body of residents etc., and licensing system for specified development activities or regulating structure of building etc. have been done.
Estimated storm surge and flood area 
Estimated storm surge and flood area 
In Hiroshima Pref, a chart of estimated storm surge and flood with estimated area and depth of flood in case of flood occurrence due to storm surge caused by typhoon is shown to public.
2 cases are estimated now; one case is occurring once every 30 years and another case is equivalent to Isewan typhoon.
Estimated tsunami and flood area
Estimated tsunami and flood area
In Hiroshima Pref, a chart of estimated tsunami and flood area with estimated flood area and depth of flood in case of occurring the largest tsunami under bad conditions is shown to public.

Evacuation area etc.

Designated emergency evacuation area
Designated emergency evacuation area
Those are facility and place designated by this city in advance in classification of disaster as an evacuation area in order to protect people’s life from imminent danger of disaster.
These are the evacuation sites will be established when evacuation instructions are issued.
City-owned facilities such as school or community center are mainly designated. 
Classification of disaster) sediment disaster, flood, storm surge, earthquake, tsunami, big fire
Designated shelter
Designated shelter
It is a facility designated by this city in advance as a place for living as refugees in a certain period in case of losing homes etc. due to disaster.
There is a facility combining a designated emergency evacuation area, too.
School gym is mainly designated.

Others

Civil protection services
Civil protection services
We will inform you of any information on civil protection announced by the national government (information on ballistic missiles, guerilla attacks, air strikes, large-scale acts of terrorism, and other relevant information on civil protection).
Headquarter for disaster control
Headquarter for disaster control
It is established in order to respond to a possible large-scale disaster. A mayor and a ward mayor play a role as a chief of the headquarter in the city and in the ward respectively.