Further descriptions of terms

Thunder

[Thunderstorm advisory]

The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that disaster due to lightning is expected to occur.
Also, an alert about disasters due to "hail" or gust of wind occurring often under developing thunder clouds may be added.
Thunderstorm advisory includes an attention to sudden strong rain.

Heavy Rain

[Heavy rain advisory]

The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disaster or sediment disaster due to heavy rain are expected to occur.
When sediment disaster etc. are expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)

[Heavy rain warning]

The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that major flood disaster or sediment disaster due to heavy rain are expected to occur.
When major sediment disaster etc. are expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)

Flood

[Flood advisory]

The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disasters such as overflow due to increasing river water caused by heavy rain and long rain etc. are expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)

[Flood warning]

The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disasters such as major overflow due to increasing river water caused by heavy rain, long rain and snow melt etc. are expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)

Storm surge

[Storm surge advisory]

The Japan Metrological Agency issues it when it forecasts that flood disaster due to extremely rise in sea level caused by typhoon is expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)

[Storm surge warning]

It is issued when major disaster due to extremely rise in sea level caused by typhoon or low pressure etc. is expected to occur.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “List of the standard of issuing warning/advisory”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/kijun/hiroshima.html)

Tsunami

[Tsunami advisory]

Pay attention to a tsunami advisory issued when a disaster due to tsunami is expected. In this case, estimated tsunami height is over 0.2 meter at high point and up to 1 meter.

[Tsunami warning]

Be vigilant to a tsunami warning issued when tsunami height is estimated to be over 1 meter at high point and up to 3 meters.

[Great tsunami warning]

Be strictly vigilant to a major tsunami warning issued when tsunami height is estimated to exceed 3 meters at high point.

Emergency warning

[Emergency warning]

Emergency warning is issued and maximum vigilance is called for when torrential rain etc. exceeding the criteria to issue warnings are expected, and major disaster risk has been extremely increasing.
The Japan Metrological Agency issues 6 kinds of emergency warnings.
In addition, major tsunami warning is placed in emergency warnings.

[Heavy rain emergency warning]

Heavy rain emergency warning is issued when heavy rain causing the amount of rainfall once in every several decades is expected due to typhoon and localized torrential rain, or when heavy rain is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
When heavy rain emergency warning is issued, major disasters such as flood or sediment disaster etc. are highly expected to occur.
When major sediment disaster etc. are highly expected to occur, the announcement holds despite of no rain.

[Heavy snow emergency warning]

Heavy snow emergency warning is issued when heavy snow causing the amount of snowfall once in every several decades is expected.

[Storm emergency warning]

Storm emergency warning is issued when stormy weather is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades. 

[Blizzard emergency warning]

Blizzard emergency warning is issued when stormy weather with snow is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
Vigilance is called for when “major disaster due to obstruction to visibility (shutting out the view) with snow etc.” in addition to “major disaster due to storm” are highly expected.

[Storm surge emergency warning]

Storm surge emergency warning is issued when storm surge is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.  

[High waves emergency warning]

High wave emergency warning is issued when high wave is expected due to as a strong typhoon or an extratropical cyclone as it occurs once in every several decades.
This “high wave” is totally different from “tsunami” due to earthquake. 

Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time

[Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time]

The Japan Meteorological Agency issues it when short-time heavy rain occurring once in every several years is observed (observation with rain gauge on the ground) and is analyzed (analysis of rainfall in combination with weather radar and rain gauge on the ground).
When this information is issued, it means that it terrifically rains in your place or nearby causing the disaster. 
In Hiroshima city, it was issued when sediment disaster occurred on 20 August, 2014.
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “Information on record-breaking heavy rain in a short period of time”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/bosai/kirokuame.html)

Tornado warning

[Tornado warning]

The Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) etc. issue it for the region (1 prefecture in general) which JMA etc. are in charge of, as information to pay attention to violent storm with very strong winds such as tornados and downbursts under cumulonimbus clouds (“tornados etc.” below) and additional information on thunderstorm advisory.
It is valid for about 1 hour after the announcement.

Sediment disaster warning services

[Sediment disaster warning services]

In case that the potential of occurring sediment disaster has been raised much more while heavy rain warning (sediment disaster) has been issued, prefectures and the Japan Meteorological Agency jointly issue it as information to call for vigilance specifying the target municipality in order to support determination of issuing evacuation warning etc.. by the mayor of municipality, or for reference of voluntary evacuation of residents. 

[Index of rainfall in the soil]

Index of rainfall in the soil is to show how much rainfall is collected in the soil using a method of “tank model” from the data of amount of the rainfall.
Sediment disasters such as debris flow and landslide due to heavy rain are highly likely to occur if the solid contains a large amount of water, and it can be also caused by rain several days before.
Index of rainfall in the soil is used for reference to issue sediment disaster alerting information or heavy rain warning and heavy rain advisory by the Japan Meteorological Agency etc. as an index to show an increasing risk of occurring sediment disaster due to heavy rain.

[Information on risk of landslide disasters]

In Hiroshima Pref, it provides the detailed information regarding a degree of risk of occurring sediment disaster in regions in 5km mesh supplementing the contents of sediment disaster alerting information.
This city issues evacuation warning etc. for those who live in the sediment disaster special alert area in accordance with a degree of risk in indicated regions. 

Flood forecast on designated rivers

[Flood forecast on designated rivers]

The Japan Meteorological Agency jointly with Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism or prefectural agencies gives forecasts of floods with the water level or the volume of flowing water regarding the designated rivers for reference of determination of prevention activities against flood or raised water level in the river, or act of resident’s evacuation.
In Hiroshima city, the following rivers are designated in advance. 
The river forecasting floods) The section managed by the nation of upstream of Ootagawa River, downstream of Ootagawa River, Misasagawa River and Nenotanigawa River 

[Overflow advisory information]

Overflow advisory information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be the criteria reaches an overflow advisory water level, and its water level is also expected to rise in the river forecasting floods.
We have reached the stage of demanding attention to the occurrence of overflow to residents. 

[Overflow alerting information]

Overflow alerting information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be the criteria is expected to reach an overflow danger water level after a certain time, or reaches the water level of determing the evacuation, and its water level is also expected to rise in the river forecasting floods.
We have reached the stage of demanding to warn to the occurrence of overflow such as preparation for evacuation etc. to residents. 

[Overflow danger information]

Overflow danger information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow danger water level in the river forecasting floods.
As overflow may occur at any moment, we have reached the stage of demanding response to the occurrence of overflow such as evacuation etc. to residents. 

[Information on occurrence of overflow]

Information on occurrence of overflow is issued when overflow occurs in the river forecasting floods.
We have reached the stage of demanding warning to flood due to overflow to residents. 

Information on reaching water level

[Information on reaching water level]

Information on reaching etc. are issued when reaching a given water level in the designated river as the one to notify and publicize an information on reaching an overflow danger water level. 
In Hiroshima city, the following rivers are designated in advance. 
The river publicizing a water level)
*The river managed by the nation : Kyuootagawa River, Motoyasugawa River, Furukawa River
*The river managed by the prefecture : Yahatagawa River, Yasukawa River, Misasagawa River, Nenotanigawa River, Minochigawa River, Senogawa River, Fuchuookawa River, Suzuharigawa River, Okanoshitagawa River, Nabaragawa River

[Overflow advisory information]

Overflow advisory information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow advisory water level in the river publicizing a water level.

[Overflow alerting information]

Overflow alerting information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches a level of determing the evacuation in the river publicizing a water level.

[Overflow danger information]

Overflow danger information is issued when the water level of water level observatory to be criteria reaches an overflow danger water level in the river publicizing a water level.

Typhoon information

[Typhoon information]

Typhoon information with the forecast and the actual conditions such as location and strength of typhoon, is issued by the Japan Meteorological Agency when typhoon occurs.
It provides much further information updating much often since a typhoon is approaching Japan.

Earthquake information

[Seismic intensity]

The seismic intensity is a scale to measure the intensity of earthquakes.
The Japan Meteorological Agency seismic intensity (shindo) scale gives a total of 10 levels of earthquake: “shindo 0”, “shindo 1”, “shindo 2”, “shindo 3”, “shindo 4”, “shindo 5-lower”, “shindo 5-upper”, “shindo 6-lower”, “shindo 6-upper”, “shindo 7”.
You can confirm effects on people, indoor situations and outdoor situations in each seismic intensity (shindo) scale on the website of The Japan Meteorological Agency. 
*The website of The Japan Meteorological Agency “Seismic intensity (shindo) scale explanation table of The Japan Meteorological Agency”
(http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/kishou/know/shindo/kaisetsu.html)
-> To the top page